Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Borgwardt S, et al. Modulation of mediotemporal and ventrostriatal function in humans by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a neural basis for the effects of Cannabis sativa on learning and psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66(4):442-51. View abstract.
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The endocannabinoid system works mainly with our the body’s own cannabinoids, which are produced internally. For example, arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) is produced within the body and is thought to regulate several functions.
CBD was isolated from the cannabis plant in 1940 independently by Adams and Todd and their colleagues. They assessed CBD and considered it to be biologically inactive. The chemical structure of CBD was fully established in 1963 by Mechoulam and Shvo.
CBD is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. According to a 2013 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, CBD benefits including acting in some experimental models as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, antiemetic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent, and is therefore a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, oxidative injury, vomiting and nausea, anxiety and schizophrenia. (1)
Epilepsy. Some early research suggests that taking cannabidiol daily for up to 18 weeks might reduce seizures in some people. But other research shows that taking cannabidiol daily for 6 months does not reduce seizures in people with epilepsy. Reasons for the conflicting data are unclear. Possibly the studies were too small.
Rigorous clinical studies are still needed to evaluate the clinical potential of CBD for specific conditions.i However, pre-clinical research (including both cell culture and animal models) has shown CBD to have a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties.
“That’s really the only area where the evidence has risen to the point where the FDA has said this is acceptable to approve a new drug,” said Timothy Welty, chair of the department of clinical sciences at Drake University’s College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, in Des Moines, Iowa.
Both CBD and THC interact with cells within our bodies by activating thecannabinoid receptors. Without venturing too deeply into technical terms, we can say that these receptors are responsible for transmitting signals within our bodies, causing different physiological effects.
Cannabidiol is a Schedule II drug in Canada. As such, it is only available with a prescription. It is available as a spray, called Sativex produced by GW Pharmaceuticals in the UK, for use in multiple sclerosis. The Canadian Government announced that October 17, 2018 is the date when marijuana can be consumed recreationally without criminal penalties, indicating that various cannabidiol products will be freely available to adult consumers.
Technically, CBD and its sister cannabinoid compounds are classified as phytocannabinoids, which means that they’re derived from plants. But there are also several other types of cannabinoids you should know about too.
The endocannabinoid system is closely interconnected with the nervous and immune system. Since CBD has been shown to boost just about every function of our cannabinoid receptors, it is proven to have far-reaching soothing and relaxing effects.
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Cannabis has been used for centuries for the suppression of nausea and vomiting. Research has revealed that among more than 80 cannabinoid compounds found in marijuana, both the intoxicant THC and the non-intoxicant CBD helps to get rid of nausea and vomiting in animal studies. A 2012 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology found that CBD benefits including possessing anti-nausea and antiemetic effects when it was administered to rats. (13) Researchers found that CBD acts in a diphasic manner, meaning that in low doses it suppresses toxin-induced vomiting, but in high doses it increases nausea or has no effect.
Cannabis essential oil works as a great pain reliever and is regularly suggested for people with inflammation and chronic pain. It can even provide emergency pain relief. There is a very good reason why people who suffer from cancer often turn to cannabis-related options, including cannabis essential oil, when the pain of chemotherapy or the disease itself becomes unbearable.
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CBD interacts with the body through the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) or endocannabinoid system. First discovered in the late 1980’s, the endocannabinoid system regulates the body’s homeostasis, or general state of balance, impacting such functions as mood, sleep, appetite, hormone regulation, and pain and immune response. Like an acrobat on a highwire, as the environment around us impacts our normal balance, the endocannabinoid system “corrects” by mediating our body’s reaction to keep us level.
Worse, CBD is being produced without any regulation, resulting in products that vary widely in quality, said Marcel Bonn-Miller, an adjunct assistant professor of psychology in psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
CBD has also been shown to have neuroprotective properties in cell cultures as well as in animal models of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s,xii,xiii,xiv stroke,xv glutamate toxicity,xvi multiple sclerosis (MS),xvii Parkinson’s disease,xviii and neurodegeneration caused by alcohol abuse.xix Nabiximols (trade name Sativex), which contains THC and CBD in roughly equal proportions, has been approved throughout most of Europe and in a number of other countries for the treatment of spasticity associated with MS. It has not been approved in the United States, but clinical trials are ongoing, and two recent studies reported that nabiximols reduced the severity of spasticity in MS patients.xx,xxi There have been limited clinical trials to assess the potential efficacy of CBD for the other indications highlighted; however, a recent small double-blind trial in patients with Parkinson’s disease found the CBD improved quality-of-life scores.xxii
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body. It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.
But studying CBD is not easy: Scientists complain that laws and regulations put excessive constraints on their work. Although it doesn’t make users high, CBD (both the molecule and CBD-rich cannabis) is classified by the federal government as a Schedule 1 drug, which means they have high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use.
Francisco Guimaraes, a pharmacologist at the University of Sao Paolo in Brazil, has found that it increases growth of new neurons in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, a region that plays a key role in depression and anxiety.
On Mar. 21, 2018, Gov. Holcomb signed SB 52 into law, which allows distribution and retail sail of “low-THC hemp extract,” defined as a product “(1) derived from Cannabis sativa L. that meets the definition of industrial hemp; (2) that contains not more than 0.3% delta-9-THC (including precursors); and (3) that contains no other controlled substances.”
A review of 25 studies on the safety and efficacy of CBD did not identify significant side effects across a wide range of dosages, including acute and chronic dose regimens, using various modes of administration.xli CBD is present in nabiximols which, as noted earlier, is approved throughout most of Europe and in other countries. Because of this, there is extensive information available with regard to its metabolism, toxicology, and safety. However, additional safety testing among specific patient populations may be warranted should an application be made to the Food and Drug Administration.
So, as discussed, the main difference when thinking of hemp CBD vs cannabis CBD are the differences in levels of CBD and THC the oil contains. Hemp has high levels of CBD and negligible levels of THC and vice versa for cannabis.
However, CBD is actually unrelated to the chemical chain that results in THC. They share some characteristics but are created via different paths. Again, unlike THC, CBD is considered a legal cannabinoid and is safe to consume in any amount and concentration.
In terms of eye health, cannabis and cannabis essential oil have been linked to a reduction in glaucoma and a prevention of macular degeneration. Eye health is one of the major reasons why people turn to cannabis essential oil as they age.
Some of the most popular hemp CBD oil products are in liquid form, made by diluting the pure hemp CBD oil into an alcohol or other natural oil base. Also commonly referred to as tinctures or sprays, they usually offer a smaller serving, from 1-20mg per serving, which is enough for most people.
Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.
Diane I suffer from the same form of arthritis. I played 19 years of football H.S. College.Professional. Then 14 years of rugby . I wore my body out. I did the cortissoz and it doesn’t help anymore. Where can I get pure CBD ?
Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Starowicz K, et al. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318(3):1375-87. View abstract.
In this article, we are putting the most important facts surrounding Cannabidiol together to cut through some of the confusion and give you a clearer picture about this new cannabinoid known as CBD. This article covers:
Hemp cleans toxins and heavy metals from the soil. Why would I want to us an oil that’s a byproduct loaded with heavy metals? The only safe cbd hemp oil would have to be organically grown in clean soil. Majority of hemp grown is doing its job pulling toxins from the ground, get real and quit spreading misinformation.
Plus if you take CBD make sure you get the legal E.U minimum of THC in the oil… Very very very important… CBD without THC can have negative effects that are canceled by that little drop of THC and vice versa the same… Don’t go 100% THC or 100% CBD plus make sure your oil extracts come from a good source and not laced with heavy metals.
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